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Coral Reefs

Introduction, classification and anatomy    Coral feeding, nutrition, gender and reproduction    Coral reef growth, forms and structure    Global Distribution and status of coral reefsnbsp     The coral reef ecosystem, its ecological functions and economic value   
Threats (Part I)    Threats (Part II)    Protecting coral reefs    Bibliography and additional readings   

Bibliography and additional readings

Adora, G., and A. Alvarez (2008) Summary of the use of cyanide in the Philippines. In Bruckner, A.W. and G. Roberts (editors). 2008. Proceedings of the International Cyanide Detection Testing Workshop. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-40, Silver Spring, MD 164 pp.

Arboleda, M., and W. Reichardt (2009). Epizoic Communities of Prokaryotes on Healthy and Diseased Scleractinian Corals in Lingayen Gulf, Philippines. Microb Ecol. Vol. 57. pp. 117–128.

Bell, J (2008) The functional roles of marine sponges. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. Vol 79. pp 341–353.

Bellwood, D.R., Hoey A.S., and J. H. Choat (2003) Limited functional redundancy in high diversity systems: resilience and ecosystem function on coral reefs. Ecology Letters. Vol 6. pp 281–285.

Bjork, M., Mohammed, S.M., Bjorklund, M., and A. Semesi (1995) Coralline algae, important coral-reed builders threatened by pollution. Ambio. Vol 24 (7-8). pp. 502-505.

Bos, A. (2009) Crown-of-thorns outbreak at the Tubbataha Reefs UNESCO World Heritage Site. Zoological Studies.

Brodie, J., Fabricius, K., De_ath, G., and K.Okaji (2005) Are increased nutrient inputs responsible for more outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish? An appraisal of the evidence. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Vol. 51. pp. 266–278.

Bruckner, A.W. and G. Roberts (editors). 2008. Proceedings of the International Cyanide Detection Testing Workshop. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-40, Silver Spring, MD 164 pp.

Buddemeier, R.W., Kleypas, J.A., and R.B. Aronson (2004) Coral reefs and Global Climate Change. Potential Contributions of Climate Change to Stresses on Coral Reef Ecosystems.

Burke, L., Reytar, K., Spalding, M., and A. Perry (2011). Reefs at Risk Revisited.

Caras, T. and Z. Pasternak (2009) Long-term environmental impact of coral mining at the Wakatobi marine park, Indonesia. Ocean & Coastal Management. Vol. 52. pp.539–544.

Carpenter, K.E., Abrar, M., Aeby, G., Aronon, R.B., Banks, S., Bruckner, A., Chiriboga, A., Cortés, J., Delbeek, J.C., DeVantier, L., Edgar, G.J., Edwards, A.J., Fenner, D., Guzmán, H.M., Hoeksema, B.W., Hodgson, G., Johan, O., Licuanan, W.Y., Livingstone, S.R., Lovell, E.R., Moore, J.A., Obura, D.O., Ochavillo, D., Polidorol, B.A., Precht, W.F., Quibilan, M.C., Reboton, C., Richards, Z.T., Rogers, A.D., Sanciangcol, J., Sheppard, A., Sheppard, C., Smith, J., Stuart, S., Turak, E., Vernon, J.E.N., Wallace, C., Weil, E., and E. Wood. (2008). One-Third of Reef-Building Corals Face Elevated Extinction Risk from Climate Change and Local Impacts. Science. Vol. 321 (5888). pp. 560-563.

CRC Reef Research Centre (2003) Crown-of-thorns Starfish on the Great Barrier Reef; A current State of Knowledge November 2003 Revised Edition.

Cairns, S. (2007). Deep-Water Corals: An Overview with special reference to Diversity and Distribution of Deep-Water Scleractinian Corals. Bulletin of Marine Science, Vol 81(3). pp.311–322.

Christie, P., Armada, N.B., White, A.T., Gulayan, A.M., and de Dios, H.H.Y., (2006). Coastal environmental and fisheries profile of Danajon Bank, Bohol, Philippines. Fisheries Improved for Sustainable Harvest (FISH) Project, Cebu City, Philippines.

Debenham, P. (2008) Background Paper on Cyanide Detection Tests for Live Fish. In Bruckner, A.W. and G. Roberts (editors). 2008. Proceedings of the International Cyanide Detection Testing Workshop. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-40, Silver Spring, MD 164 pp.

Dalabajan, D., (2005). Fixing the broken net: improving enforcement of laws regulating cyanide fishing in the Calamianes Group of Islands, Philippines. SPC Live Reef Fish Information Bulletin. Vol 15. pp3–12.

Downs, C.A., Fauth, J.E., Downs, V. D. and G. K. Ostrander (2010). In vitro cell-toxicity screening as an alternative animal model for coral toxicology: effects of heat stress, sulfide, rotenone, cyanide, and cuprous oxide on cell viability and mitochondrial function. Ecotoxicology. Vol. 19. pp 171–184.

Edwards, A. J., and D. Fisk (2010) Steps in planning a rehabilitation project. In Edwards, A.J. (ed.) (2010). Reef Rehabilitation Manual. Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program: St Lucia, Australia. ii + 166 pp.

Edwards, A. J., and E. Gomez (2010) Objectives and scope of this manual. In Edwards, A.J. (ed.) (2010). Reef Rehabilitation Manual. Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program: St Lucia, Australia. ii + 166 pp.

Erwin, P.M., López-Legentil, S., and Schuhmann, P.W. (2010). The pharmaceutical value of marine biodiversity for anti-cancer drug discovery. Ecological Economics. Vol. 70. pp. 445–451.

Fabricius, K., (2005) Effects of terrestrial runoff on the ecology of corals and coral reefs: review and synthesis. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Vol 50. pp. 125–146.

Fabricius, K., (2011) Factors determining the resilience of coral reefs to eutrophication: A review and conceptual model. In Dubinsky, Z., and Stambler (eds) (2011) Coral Reefs: An ecosystem in transition. pp 493-508.

Fabinyi, M., and D. Dalabajan (2011) Policy and practice in the live reef fish for food trade: A case study from Palawan, Philippines. Marine Policy. Vol 35(3). pp 371-378.

Fox, H.E., Mous, P. J., Pet, J.S., Muljadi, A.H., and R.L.Caldwell (2005). Experimental Assessment of coral reef rehabilitation following blast fishing. Conservation Biology. Vol. 19. pp 98-107.

Fox, W.E., Pet, J.S., Dahuri, R., and R.L. Caldwell (2003) Recovery in rubble fields: long-term impacts of blast fishing. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Vol 46. pp 1024–1031.

Freiwald, A., Fossa, J.H., Grehan, A., Koslow, T., Roberts, J.M. (2004) Cold-water Coral Reefs. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.

Galloway, S.B., Work, T.M., Bochsler, V.S., Harley, R.A., Kramarsky-Winters, E., McLaughlin, S.M, Meteyer, C.U., Morado, J.F., Nicholson, J.H., Parnell, P.G., Peters, E.C., Reynolds, T.L., Rotstein, D.S., Sileo, L., and Woodley, C.M. (2007). Coral Disease and Health Workshop: Coral Histopathology II. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 56 and NOAA Technical Memorandum CRCP 4. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD. 84p.

Garrod, B. and S. Gössling (eds) (2008). New Frontiers in Marine Tourism. Diving Experiences, Sustainability and Management. Elsevier, UK.

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2006) Coral Spawning. Fact sheet No. 20. Australian Government.

Gomez, E., Dizon, R., and A. J. Edwards (2010) Methods of coral transplantation. In Edwards, A.J. (ed.) (2010). Reef Rehabilitation Manual. Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program: St Lucia, Australia. ii + 166 pp.

Guest, J. R., Dizon, R. M., Edwards, A. J., Franco, C. and Gomez, E. D. (2011), How Quickly do Fragments of Coral “Self-Attach” after Transplantation?. Restoration Ecology. Vol 19. pp 234–242.

Guignard, C., and T. Le Berre (2010) Transplantation of coral fragments and colonies at tourist resorts using coated metal frames as a substrate. In Edwards, A.J. (ed.) (2010). Reef Rehabilitation Manual. Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program: St Lucia, Australia. ii + 166 pp.

Haapkylä, J., Seymour, A.S., Trebilco, J. and D. Smith. (2007). Coral disease prevalence and coral health in the Wakatobi Marine Park, south-east Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Vol 87, pp. 403–414.

Hasler, H., and J.A. Ott (2008) Diving down the reefs? Intensive diving tourism threatens the reefs of the northern Red Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Vol 56. pp1788–1794.

Heron, S., Morgan, J., Eakin, M, and W. Skirving (2008) Hurricanes and their effect on corals reefs. In Wilkinson, C., Souter, D. (2008). Status of Caribbean coral reefs after bleaching and hurricanes in 2005. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, Townsville, 152 p.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O. , Mumby, P. J., Hooten, A. J., Steneck, R. S., Greenfield, P., Gomez, E., Harvell, C. D., Sale, P. F., Edwards, A. J., Caldeira, K.., Knowlton, N., Eakin, C. M., Iglesias-Prieto, R., Muthiga, N., Bradbury, R. H., Dubi, A., and M. E. Hatziolos1 (2007) Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification. Science. Vol 318, pp. 1737 – 1742.

Kaczmarsky. L.T. (2006) Coral disease dynamics in the central Philippines. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. Vol. 69: 9–21, 2006.

Kaczmarsky, L.T., (2011) Characterizations of the Major Coral Diseases of the Philippines: Ulcerative White Spot Disease and Novel Growth Anomalies of Porites. Florida International University Electronic Thesis and Dissertations.

Kaczmarsky . L., and L. L. Richardson (2011) Do elevated nutrients and organic carbon on Philippine reefs increase the prevalence of coral disease?. Coral Reefs. Vol 30. pp. 253–257.

Knowlton, N (2008) Coral Reefs. Current Biology. Vol 18 (1). pp. R18-21.

Kuehl, K., Jones, R., Gibbs, D., and L. Richardson (2011). The roles of temperature and light in black band disease (BBD) progression on corals of the genus Diploria in Bermuda. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 106. pp. 366–370.

Marcus, J.E., Samoilys, M.A., Meeuwig, J.J., Villongco, Z.A.D., and A.C.J. Vincent (2007) Benthic status of near-shore fishing grounds in the central Philippines and associated seahorse densities. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Vol. 54. pp. 1483–1494.

Millet Encalada, M. (2010) Transplantation of coral fragments onto artificial reefs at a hurricane-damaged site in Cozumel, Mexico. In Edwards, A.J. (ed.) (2010). Reef Rehabilitation Manual. Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program: St Lucia, Australia. ii + 166 pp.

Muller, E.M., and R. van Woesik (2011) Black-band disease dynamics: Prevalence, incidence, and acclimatization to light. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. Vol 397. pp. 52–57.

Mydlarz, L.D., McGinty, E.S., and C. Drew Harvell (2010) What are the physiological and immunological responses of coral to climate warming and disease? The Journal of Experimental Biology. Vol 213. pp. 934-945.

Pratchett, M.S., (2007). Feeding preferences of Acanthaster planci (L.) under controlled conditions of food availability. Pacific Science. 61, pp. 113–120.

Pratchett, M.S., Schenk, T.J., Baine, M., Syms, C., and A.H. Baird (2009) Selective coral mortality associated with outbreaks of Acanthaster planci L. in Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea. Marine Environmental Research. Vol. 67. pp 230–236.

Rasher, D.B., and M. E. Hay (2010) Chemically rich seaweeds poison corals when not controlled by herbivores. PNAS. Vol. 107. no. 21. pp. 9683–968. www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0912095107

Raymundo, L.J., Rosell, K.B., Reboton, C.T., and L. Kaczmarsky (2005) Coral diseases on Philippine reefs: genus Porites is a dominant host. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. Vol. 64: 181–191, 2005.

Raymundo, L.J., Maypa, A.P., Gomez, E.D., and P. Cadiz (2007). Can dynamite-blasted reefs recover? A novel, low-tech approach to stimulating natural recovery in fish and coral populations. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Vol 54. pp 1009–1019.

Raymundo, L., Maypa, A., Rojas, P., and R. Myers (2008). Marine Protected Area Surveys of the Central Visayas, Philippines – 2007. University Of Guam Marine Laboratory Technical Report No. 122.

Rinkevich, B. (2008) Management of coral reefs: We have gone wrong when neglecting active reef restoration. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Vol 56, pp 1821–1824.

Rojas Jr., P.t., Raymundo1, L.J., and R.L. Myers (2008) Coral transplants as rubble stabilizers: a technique to rehabilitate damaged reefs. Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, 7-11 July 2008. Session number 24.

Rotjan, R.D., and S.M. Lewis (2008) Impact of coral predators on tropical reefs. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Vol. 367. pp. 73–91.

Rubec, P.J., Pratt, V.R., McCullough, B., Manipula, B., Alban, J., Espero, T. and Suplido, E. (2003) Trends determined by cyanide testing on marine aquarium fish in the Philippines. In Marine Ornamental Species: Collection, Culture and Conservation (Cato, J.C. and Brown, C.L., Eds.) 327-340, Iowa State Press, Ames, IA.

Sale, P.F. (2008) Management of coral reefs: Where we have gone wrong and what we can do about it. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Vol 56. pp 805–809.

Selman, M., Greenhalgh, S., Diaz, R., and Z. Sugg (2008) Eutrophication and hypoxia in coastal areas: A global assessment of the state of knowledge. WRI policy note Water quality: eutrophication and hypoxia.

Shaisha, L., Levya, G., Katzirc, G., and B. Rinkevicha (2010) Employing a highly fragmented, weedy coral species in reef restoration Ecological Engineering. Vol 36. pp.1424–1432.

Shelley, C. 2008. Capture-based aquaculture of mud crabs (Scylla spp.). In A. Lovatelli and P.F. Holthus (eds). Capture-based aquaculture. Global overview. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 508. Rome, FAO. pp. 255–269.

Sussman, M. (2009) Coral disease pathogens of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. PhD thesis. James Cook University.

Sutherland, K.P., Porter, J.W., and C. Torres (2004) Disease and immunity in Caribbean and Indo-Pacific zooxanthellate corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Vol. 266. pp. 273–302.

Sweatman, H. (2008) No-take reserves protect coral reefs from predatory starfish. Current Biology. Vol 18 (14). pp. R598-599.

Veron, J.E.N., Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Lenton, T.M., Lough, J.M., Obura, D.O., Pearce-Kelly, P., Sheppard, C.R.C., Spalding, M., Stafford-Smith, M.G., and A.D. Rogers (2009) The coral reef crisis: The critical importance of <350 ppm CO2. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Vol 58. pp. 1428–1436.

Weis, V.M., (2008) Commentary Cellular mechanisms of Cnidarian bleaching: stress causes the collapse of symbiosis. Journal of Experimental Biology. Vol. 211. pp. 3059-3066.

Wild, C., Niggl, W., Naumann, M.S., and A.F. Haas (2010) Organic matter release by Red Sea coral reef organisms—potential effects on microbial activity and in situ O2 availability. Marine Ecology Progress. Vol. 411. pp 61–71.

Wilkinson, C., (eds). (2008). Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2008.

Willis, B.L., Page, C.A., and E.A. Dinsdale (2004) Coral Disease on the Great Barrier Reef in Rosenberg, E. and Y. Loya (eds) (2004) Coral Health and Disease.

Worachananant, S., Carter, R.W., Hockings, M., and P. Reopanichkul (2008) Managing the Impacts of SCUBA Divers on Thailand's Coral Reefs. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. Vol 16 (6). pp 645 – 663.

Yoshikawaa, T., and K. Asoha (2004). Entanglement of monofilament fishing lines and coral death Biological Conservation. Vol: 117. pp 557–560.

Bibliography and additional readings

Blundell, A., (2010) Reef ball type cemetery allows for burial at sea for your cremated remains

Bonaldo, R. & D. Bellwood (2009) Dynamics of parrotfish grazing scars presentation

Campbell, S.J, Pratchett, M.S., Anggoro, A.W., Ardiwijaya, R.L., Fadli, N., Herdiana, Y., Kartawijaya, T., Mahyiddin, D., Mukminin, A., Pardede, S.T., Rudi, E., Siregar, A.M., and A.H. Baird. (2007) Disturbance to Coral Reefs in Aceh, Northern Sumatra: Impacts of the Sumatra-Andaman Tsunami and Pre-Tsunami Degradation

CoRIS noaa’s coral reef information system (2010) What are coral reefs?

CoRIS noaa’s coral reef information system (2010) Major reef-building coral diseases.

CoRIS noaa’s coral reef information system (2010b) Coral Reef Biology Coral Reef Biology

CoRIS noaa’s coral reef information system (2008) Glossary

Drakou, A. (2009) Ministers in Maldives are taking scuba-diving lessons in order to convene under water

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2011) About Zoning

Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology Shark and Reef Fish Research (unknown) Human Impacts in Hawaii Marine Protected Areas

International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (2010) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

International Coral Reef Initiative (2007) International Year of the Reef 2008

IUCN (2009) Tubbataha Reefs National Park, the Philippines

Kayangel Atoll, Belau, Palau Islands

Krupp, D. (2010) University of Hawaii Winward Community College

Learn How to Scuba Dive: Explore A New World (2010)

Manila Bulletin (2010) MCPI conducts training on seaweed farming

NOAA Fisheries Office of Protected Resources (2002) Staghorn Coral (Acropora cervicornis)

NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Programme (2009) Coral Reproduction

NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Programme (2009b)From Polyp to Colony

NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Programme (2010) Coral Anatomy and Structure

NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Programme (2010b) Medicine

Oracle Think Quest Education Foundation Phylum Cnidaria

Pinoy Farmer (2008) Steps in Farming Seaweeds

ReefBall.Ru (2006) ReefBall.Ru

Science Daily (2007) Corals Added To IUCN Red List Of Threatened Species For First Time

The Coral Reef Alliance (2008) Mining and Harvesting

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (2011)Species profile: Staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis)

UNEP/GRID-Arendal, 'Distribution of coldwater and tropical coral reefs', UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library, February 2008

United Nations Environment Programme and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (2008) Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park Philippines

What are the different kinds of coastal ecosystems?

WWF (2009) Coral Miners

Zoological Society of London (ZSL) EDGE Evolutionally Distinct and Globally Endangered (2011)

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